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When I heard the learn'd astronomer;
When the proofs, the figures, were ranged in columns before me;
When I was shown the charts and the diagrams, to add, divide, and measure them;
When I, sitting, heard the astronomer, where he lectured with much applause in the lecture room,
How soon, unaccountable, I became tired and sick;
Till rising and gliding out, I wander'd off by myself,
In the mystical moist night-air, and from time to time,
Look'd up in perfect silence at the stars.
--- Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass, 1900

Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence.  Its test is that it will explain all phenomena.
 --- Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nature, 1836

The grand aim of all science is to cover the greatest number of empirical facts by logical deduction
from the smallest number of hypotheses or axioms.
--- Albert Einstein, Life, 9 Jan 1950

Astronomical Tides Affect Solar Activity 

"It is found empirically that solar activity is preceded by planetary conjunctions.  A long-range prediction technique has been in use for 2.5 years, which predicts flares and proton events months in advance."
- J.B. Blizard, Denver University.  American Physical Society Bulletin #13, June 1968.

"The relationships set forth here imply that certain dynamic forces exerted on the sun by the motions of the planets are the cause of the sunspot activity."
- Paul D. Jose, Aerospace Research, USAF. The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 70.  April 1965.

"This work shows not only a good correlation between planetary synodic period resonances with solar activity period, but also a rough correlation between the variations of the resonance period resulting from orbit eccentricity and the variations of the sunspot period."
- Robert M. Wood, McDonnell Douglas, Nature.  Vol. 255.  May 22, 1975.

"There seems to be a definite relationship between the orbital periods of the planets and the periodic nature of the sunspot cycle, and the relationship depends on a non-linearity in the solar energy conversion system."
- R.A. Burear & L.B. Craine.  Electrical Engineering.  Washington State University.  Nature, Vol. 228.  December 5, 1970.

"In summation, after more than 25 years of research in this field of solar system science, I can say without equivocation that there is very strong evidence that the planets, when in certain predictable arrangements, do cause changes to take place in those solar radiations that control our ionosphere.  I have no solid theory to explain what I have observed, but the similarity between an electric generator with its carefully placed magnets and the sun with its ever-changing planets is intriguing.  In the generator, the magnets are fixed and produce a constant electrical current.  If we consider that the planets are magnets and the sun is the armature, we have a considerable similarity to the generator.  However, in this case, the magnets are moving.  For this reason, the electrical-magnetic stability of the solar system varies widely.  This is what one would expect."
- John H. Nelson, RCA Communications.  Cosmic Patterns.  1974.

"Air is also moved by the gravitational attraction of the moon and sun.  This movement is called a tide.  You cannot see an air tide as you see a water tide, but an air tide occurs just as regularly as does a tide in the sea . . . At the earth's surface, the speed of these tides, called lunar winds, is about 1/20 of a mile per hour."
- World Book Encyclopedia.  Air.

"In conclusion, the following points can be clearly stated:  (a) the influence of the inner planets on the fluctuation of the acceleration of the Sun in inertial space is as important as that of the outer planets;  (b) the short-time acceleration and jerk patterns are repetitive with a clear 11.08-year period, agreeing well with the mean sunspot cycle."
Dr. Robert M Wood.  Solar Motion and Sunspot Comparison.  Nature.  October 9, 1965.

Solar Activity Affects Earth's Magnetic Field and Weather 

ITEM 8:   
"When solar activity increases and the weak magnetic field that is carried by the solar wind intensifies, providing more shielding of the earth from low-energy galactic cosmic rays, there is believed to be a reduction in ion production in the lower atmosphere that results in the creation of fewer cloud condensation nuclei there and, hence, less low-level cloud cover, which consequently allows more solar radiation to impinge upon the earth and increase surface air temperature. Many people believe this scenario explains much of the global warming that has occurred since the temperature minimum of the Little Ice Age. Support for this hypothesis is provided by the studies of Svensmark and Friis-Christensen (1997), Marsh and Svensmark (2000) and Palle Bago and Butler (2000), who derived a positive relationship between global cosmic ray intensity and low-cloud amount from infrared (IR) cloud measurements contained in the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) database for the years 1983-1993.
With respect to the hypothesized relationship between global cosmic ray intensity and low-cloud amount, the authors report that they found 'a positive correlation at low altitudes, which is consistent with the positive correlation between global low clouds and cosmic ray rate seen in the infrared.'"
Marsden, D. and Lingenfelter, R.E. 2003. Solar activity and cloud opacity variations: A modulated cosmic ray ionization model. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 60: 626-636.
website: http://www.co2science.org/
Further reference:  Palle Bago, E. and Butler, C.J. 2000. The influence of cosmic rays on terrestrial clouds and global warming. Astronomy & Geophysics 41: 4.18-4.22.

" . . . the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory showed that magnetic and climatic changes have followed parallel courses during this century (Nature, vol. 242, p. 34) . . . As the Lamont team said, 'a close relationship links changes in the Earth's magnetic field and climate', and they went on to suggest that both effects may be the result of varying solar activity."
- The Jupiter Effect.  Gribbin & Plagemann.  1976. p. 155.

ITEM 10:
"At a recent gathering of the American Geophysical Union in Washington, two physicists from the University of California at Berkeley have continued where Abbot left off.  To the amazement of their colleagues, they presented weather data they had collected from satellites, balloons, and ground-based observation posts which showed that there were three times as many thunderstorms when there was a solar flare as when the sun was quiet.  The physicists, Drs. Robert Holzworth and Forrest Maze, also found that during a solar flare, the electricity in the Earth's atmosphere builds up tremendously and that it is through lightning that this enormous energy is discharged."
- E.A. Laurence.  Cosmic Bonds.  1981.  Warner Books.

ITEM 11:
"Because of this and other evidence we further conclude that a close relationship links changes of the Earth's magnetic field and climate.  This may be a direct cause and effect relationship.  But Yukutake has suggested that the Earth's magnetic field changes with relation to solar activity and Budyko has shown that the intensity of solar radiation received on ground stations in the northern hemisphere is decreasing since 1938, so we cannot exclude the possibility that both the Earth's magnetic field and climate show parallel reactions to the processes in the Sun."
Goesta Wollin, George J. Kukla, David B. Ericson, William B.F. Ryan, Janet Wollin.  Magnetic Intensity and Climate Changes 1925-1970.  Nature.  Vol. 242.  March 2, 1973.

ITEM 12:
"Here I present evidence which indicates that important climatic features, such as droughts and unusually long 'growing seasons', are dependent on the solar cycle to such an extent that significant progress could be made in forecasting the occurrence of these features if some account were taken of the expected levels of solar activity in the future.  I also demonstrate that energetic particles may constitute one form of solar radiation which profoundly affects the lower atmosphere."
J.W. King.  Solar Radiation Changes and the Weather.  Nature.  Vol. 245.  October 26, 1973.

ITEM 13:   
The following study may be a critical one in resolving the mechanism problem of how hurricanes and earthquakes may be triggered by changes in our atmosphere.
"Length-Of-Day variations measured by Very-Long-Baseline-Interferometry correspond closely to the variations inferred from changes in the angular momentum of the atmosphere, demonstrating that the atmosphere has a significant influence on the earth's rate of rotation.  The tidal variations in the rotation rate due to the gravitational effects of the moon and sun have been removed from the data.  Exchanges of angular momentum between the atmosphere and the crust account for more than 90 percent of the non tidal, seasonal variations in the rotation rate;  they also have a strong influence on shorter-period fluctuations.  The large peak in the length of day in early 1983 coincided with El Nino.  At that time angular momentum was transferred from the surface to the atmosphere;  the earth slowed down and the east-west winds, notably the northern subtropical jet streams, intensified."
William E. Carter, Douglas S. Robertson.  Studying the Earth by Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry.  
A link is established between planetary motions, the movement of the atmosphere and Earth's rotation, setting up a theoretical link between our atmosphere, hurricanes and earthquakes.

ITEM 14:
"After a succession of published reports on this work in 1978, 1979, and 1980, Markson (Science) completed significant additional work.  He directly correlated cosmic radiation with the only available data sets of ionospheric potential variation and found the expected direct correlation.  So now, in his view, there seems to be little doubt that the proposed mechanism is correct, although he and colleagues continue to work with statistical correlations and want more explicit proof.  The implication of the direct correlation is that the thunderstorm charging mechanisms are sensitive to conductivity over developing and mature thunderclouds and the electric field intensity near them.  A second implication is that there probably is indeed an increase in thunderstorm activity following increases in ionization of the atmosphere.
     Markson's work offers an explanation for how solar variability controls the electrification of Earth's atmosphere.  And it proposes ways that the changing sun may in turn affect weather.  The long-sought physical link may be at hand."
Kendrick Frazier.  Our Turbulent Sun.

ITEM 15:
"'We threw everything at it,' says Livezey (J. Climate 1, 905 (1988), 'and it held up.  I would characterize these correlations as highly significant statistically.'  The observed correlation between the solar cycle and the temperature at an altitude of about 3.3 kilometers in the west phase was exceeded by randomly generated correlations only two times out of a thousand'."
Richard A. Kerr.  Sunspot-Weather Link Holding Up.  Science, Vol. 242, p 1124.

ITEM 16:
"In brief, recent studies make a good case that the sun's radiant output varies over decades and longer time scales and that these variations are playing a significant role in climate change."
Douglas V. Hoyt & Kenneth H. Schatten.  The Role of the Sun in Climate Change.  Oxford University Press, 1997.

ITEM 17:
"At the Collm Observatory of the University of Leipzig LF D1 low-frequency total reflection night-time wind measurements have been carried out continuously for more than two decades. Using a multiple regression analysis to derive prevailing winds, tides and the quasi-2-day wave from the half-hourly mean values of the horizontal wind components, monthly mean values of mesopause wind parameters are obtained that can be analyzed with respect to long-term trends and influences of solar variability. The response of the prevailing wind to the 11-year solar cycle differs throughout the year. While in winter no significant correlation between the zonal prevailing wind and solar activity is found, in spring and summer a negative correlation between the TWC can be seen from the measurements. This is connected with stronger vertical gradients of the zonal prevailing wind during solar maximum than during solar minimum. Since the amplitude of the quasi-2-day wave is dependent on the zonal mean wind vertical gradient, this is connected with a positive correlation between solar activity and quasi-two-day wave activity."
On the solar cycle dependence of winds and planetary waves as seen from mid-latitude D1 LF mesopause region wind measurements, Annales Geophysicae, Abstract Volume 16 Issue 12 (1998) pp 1534-1543, C. Jacobi, Institute for Meteorology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstr. 3, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany Fax: +49341221 0937; e-mail: jacobi@rz.uni-leipzig.de.

ITEM 18:
"The high-speed particle flux (solar wind) escaping from the Sun controls the geomagnetic activity at middle latitudes. The latter is found to be negatively correlated to the difference of atmospheric pressure between January and April averaged out in the area of the Northern Adriatic. This difference is again related to the water volume flowing from the South into the Northern Adriatic Sea and is a necessary (though not sufficient) condition for the occurrence of strong algal-blooms in summer. A physical model involving geomagnetic activity, mean atmospheric pressured difference between latitude 35 °N and 55 °N in the European area and atmospheric pressure difference from winter to spring in the Northern Adriatic basin is proposed. The possibility of predicting the long-term variations of geomagnetic activity allows one to obtain long-term predictions of winter minus spring pressure and therefore indications of the risk of strong summer-time algal-bloom episodes."
Solar Activity and Algal-bloom Occurrences in the Northern Adriatic Sea: Geomagnetic Connection, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Abstract Volume 59 Issue 1/2 (1998) pp 129-134, S. Ferraro (1), A. Mazzarella (2)
(1) Istituto Sperimentale Talassografico, CNR-Trieste, Italy
(2) Dipartimento di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy.

ITEM 19:
"It is evident that fluctuations in a standard ionospheric parameter, the minimum (virtual) height (h$^\prime$F) of the equatorial F-region in the African (Ouagadougou), Asian (Manila) and American (Huancayo) longitudinal sectors, closely resemble changes in solar activity as deduced from the 10.7 cm solar flux index (S), over two solar cycles (1969-91)."
Equatorial ionospheric response to the 10.7 cm radio flux over two sunspot cycles (1969-1991), Annales Geophysicae, Abstract Volume 14 Issue 7 (1996) pp 725-732, L. A. Hajkowicz, Department of Physics, University of Queensland, Qld. 4072, Australia.

ITEM 20:
"Long series of simultaneous VHF scintillation observations at two stations situated in near magnetic east-west direction in the vicinity of the dip equator in the Indian region have been employed to investigate the night-time ionospheric plasma zonal drifts. The drifts are found to be predominantly easterly. On comparing the magnitudes of the drifts with those results derived earlier by HF fading technique, monitoring signals from two satellites at a station and spaced receiver experiment, their associations with the season and the degree of solar activity are discussed. On a broader scale, the annual mean sunspot number is shown to have a direct control on the derived drift, the positive relationship even on day to day basis with the solar flux is established. However, the relationship, as understood by the slope of the best fit line, in the Indian region (0.27) is found to be weaker when compared with the similar slope (0.45) in the American sector. There appears to be no geomagnetic activity control on the estimated drifts."
Seasonal and solar cycle association of zonal drifts of ionospheric plasma irregularities in the Indian equatorial region, Annales Geophysicae, Abstract Volume 14 Issue 3 (1996) pp 297-303, B. M. Pathan, D. R. K. Rao, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Colaba, Bombay 400005, India.

ITEM 21:   
"The fundamental conclusion of this paper is that short-term changes in total solar irradiance from the Sun may have an effect on the short-term regional climate of North America through global oceanic and atmospheric processes. Annual solar-irradiance variations may create warm and cool ocean water anomalies in the tropical Pacific Ocean, which can affect streamflow in the Mississippi 5 years later through induced position of ridges and troughs in the jet stream."
A Regression Model for Annual Streamflow in the Upper Mississippi River Basin Based on Solar Irradiance, Charles A. Perry, Proceedings of the 16th Annual Pacific Climate Workshop, May 24-27, 1999.
Complete paper:  http://ks.water.usgs.gov/Kansas/pubs/reports/paclim99.html

ITEM 22:
"The question of whether or not the Earth's climate is influenced by solar activity has received considerable attention since the mid-nineteenth century. Most investigations have adopted the sunspot number as the parameter of solar activity. Recently, however, it has been shown by Friis-Christensen and Lassen (1991) that the mean northern hemisphere temperature, from 1861-1990, follows a strikingly similar trend to the length of the sunspot cycle, suggesting that the recent global warming could, at least in part, arise from changes in solar activity. In view of the importance of this result, we have examined a set of continuous meteorological records, maintained at Armagh Observatory since 1844, to assess, first, whether data from a single site can give meaningful information on global trends, and second, whether the data from this particular site for the period 1844-1866 can be used to extend the baseline of the comparison with solar activity. We find that both are indeed the case and that there is a strong correlation between the solar cycle length and the mean temperature at Armagh over the past 149 years."
Maximum and minimum temperatures at Armagh Observatory, 1844-1992, and the length of the sunspot cycle, Solar Physics (ISSN 0038-0938), vol. 152, no. 1, p. 35-42.
Complete paper:  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=1994SoPh..152...35B&db_key=AST&high=3ef90d314409428

ITEM 23:
"In this paper we first describe the production of space charge and the way in which it may influence the rate of ice nucleation. Then we review theory and observations of the solar wind modulation of J_z, and the correlated changes in atmospheric temperature and dynamics in the troposphere. The correlations are present for each input, (A, B, and C), and the detailed patterns of responses provide support for the inferred electrical effects on the physics of clouds, affecting precipitation, temperature and dynamics."
Influence of Solar Wind on the Global Electric Circuit, and Inferred Effects on Cloud Microphysics, Temperature, and Dynamics in the Troposphere, Brian A. Tinsley, University of Texas at Dallas, Space Science Reviews, v. 94, Issue 1/2, p. 231-258 (2000).

ITEM 24:
" . . . increase in the rate of change values of H (geomagnetic horizontal intensity) and F (geomagnetic total intensity) was followed by decrease in temperatures and vice versa."
- Goesta Wollin, John E. Sanders, and David B. Ericson, Columbia University.  Abrupt Geomagnetic Variations---Predictive Signals for Temperature changes 3-7 Years in Advance.  Climate--History, Periodicity and Predictability.  1987, p. 242.

ITEM 25:   
"This suggested that small changes in the Sun's total irradiance could excite this global decadal mode in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system similar to those excited internally on biennial and interannual period scales. This is a significant finding, proving that energy budget models (that is, models based on globally-averaged radiation balances) yield unrealistic responses. Thus, the true response must include positive and negative feedbacks in the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-terrestrial system as its internal mode (that is, the natural mode of the system) respond in damped resonance to quasi-periodic decadal changes in the Sun's irradiance."
Quantitative Assessment of the Integrated Response in Global Heat and Moisture Budgets to Changing Solar Irradiance, White, Warren B.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael,
AA(Scripps Institution of Oceanography), AB(Scripps Institution of Oceanography), AC(Scripps Institution of Oceanography),  Technical Report, Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, CA United States, 01/2001.
abstract:  http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?bibcode=2001STIN...0181064W&db_key=AST&high=3f3bd6bb3122466

Weather Affects Humans   

ITEM 26:
"'Weather is a known catalyst for mood swings,'  says Dr. Norman Rosenthal, a psychiatrist with the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Md., and author of Seasons of the Mind:  Why You Get the Winter Blues (Bantam Books).
     'Temperature affects the hypothalamus, that part of the brain that serves as the body's thermostat.  Sunlight alters the balance of hormones.  Changes in humidity and barometric pressure lead to changes in blood flow and the amount of oxygen reaching the brain.
     The elation that so many of us feel in springtime is in fact a physiological response to the increased hours of sunlight.  As sunlight strikes our skin, it releases a dormant type of vitamin D into the endocrine system of the thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands.  Ultimately, sunlight helps to trigger the release of the hormones epinephrine and nor epinephrine by the medulla of the adrenal glands.
     Both hormones stimulate the heart to produce more blood and also constrict the blood vessels, so that blood pressure rises.  Additionally, epinephrine speeds up the transformation of the glycogen into glucose, or sugar, within the liver.  Within minutes of these changes, the body is in high gear, and you feel expansive and upbeat.
     On overcast days when barometric pressure falls, so too does the level of oxygen in the blood.  The weight of the atmosphere pushes down on the skin, constricting capillaries.  Less blood---and so less oxygen---gets to the brain.  The brain becomes sluggish;  it's common to be forgetful or overlook details'."
- Nation's Business, Why You Feel Better When The Sun Shines. April 1990.

ITEM 27:
"Dr. Peterson documented rhythms in the general population by investigating numbers of births, deaths, suicides, psychotic episodes, sex ratios of newborn infants, and sex ratios of the dead. . . Atmospheric tides were correlated with (these) rhythms.  Dr. Peterson concluded that the population was reacting en masse to cosmic forces, the weather being the intermediate link to the cosmos."
     "During a 30-year period, from 1920-1950, He (Dr. William F. Petersen, Professor of Pathology, Illinois University Medical School) performed painstaking research that revealed human biological rhythms correlated with weather patterns.  I find that both human biorhythms and weather changes can be traced to natural fluctuations in the solar, lunar, and star cycles."
- Arnold L. Lieber, M.D., The Lunar Effect. 1978.  Anchor Press/Doubleday.

ITEM 28:
"Under conditions of high temperature and high population density, responses were found to be significantly more negative than under conditions of comfortable temperature and low population density.  The significant temperature effect provides a replication of a previous finding (Griffitt, 1970)."
- Griffitt and Veitch (1971).  Influences of Population Density & Temperature on Interpersonal Affective Behavior.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.  Vol. 17, #1, p92.

ITEM 29:
" . . . ambient temperature increased significantly during the seven days preceding the outbreak of collective violence."  
- Baron and Ransberger (1978).  Ambient Temperature and the Occurrence of Collective Violence.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.  Vol. 36, #4, p351.

ITEM 30:
"A synoptic climatological approach is used to investigate linkages between air mass types (weather situations), the daily mean particulate matter with a size of 10 µm or less (PM10) concentrations and all respiratory hospital admissions for the Birmingham area, UK. Study results show distinct differential responses of respiratory admission rates to the six winter air mass types identified. Two of the three air masses associated with above average admission rates (continental anticyclonic gloom and continental anticyclonic fine and cold) also favour high PM10 levels. This association is suggestive of a possible linkage between weather, air quality and health. The remaining admissions-sensitive air mass type (cool moist maritime) does not favour high PM10 levels. This is considered to be indicative of a direct weather-health relationship."
Daily hospital respiratory admissions and winter air mass types, Birmingham, UK, International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 43 Issue 1 (1999) pp 21-30,
G. R. McGregor (1), S. Walters (2), J. Wordley (2)
(1) School of Geography, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
(2) Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

ITEM 31:
"Winter ischaemic heart disease (IHD) mortality events (ME) were identified in order to establish their degree of meteorological sensitivity. Sensitivity was evaluated using regression of surface meteorological and large-scale atmospheric circulation variables on daily mortality for each mortality event. Critical meteorological variables affecting IHD mortality appear to be local surface dry-bulb and dew-point temperature and large-scale southerly and westerly wind components, atmospheric pressure and vorticity. The rate of change and departure from normal conditions of these variables appear to be especially important for engendering IHD mortality events. Associated with IHD mortality are two broad types of weather conditions: (1) blustery westerly flows and rapidly changing weather from the west and (2) climatologically strong northeasterly to southeasterly flows of cold air, which bring rapidly changing and anomalous thermal conditions to the study area."
The meteorological sensitivity of ischaemic heart disease mortality events in Birmingham, UK,
International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 45 Issue 3 (2001) pp 133-142, G. R. McGregor, School of Geography and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK e-mail: G.R.McGregor@bham.ac.uk.

ITEM 32:
"An evaluation of the impacts of weather on pollution, specifically, ozone and total suspended particulates concentration for Summer, is examined in four cities in the U.S.: Birmingham, Cleveland, Philadelphia, and Seattle. These cities were selected because of their different climate regimes and their generally good pollutant and meteorological datasets. This paper uses a synoptic climatological approach, which combines a number of atmospheric factors, to better identify the relationships between atmospheric pollution and climatological conditions. Synoptic events represent holistic units of atmospheric conditions which commonly occur at a given locale, and possess specific weather and pollution characteristics. A number of weather variables, including temperature, are used in the development of a synoptic index, which can be used to identify synoptic events associated with specific pollution episodes. Results from the analysis illustrate that there is a substantial difference in pollution loads under different synoptic patterns, and that the cities do have substantially different relationships. Information from this study could be used to assist in the analysis of the differential impacts of weather and pollution upon human morbidity. Specific information as to the linkages between the synoptic weather patterns, pollution concentrations, and human health could be used in the development of weather/health watch-warning systems to alert the public that a synoptic episode is imminent."
Relationships between Synoptic Climatology and Atmospheric Pollution at 4 US Cities, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Abstract Volume 62 Issue 3/4 (1999) pp 163-174, J. S. Greene (1), L. S. Kalkstein (2), H. Ye (3), K. Smoyer (4).
(1) Department of Geography and Environmental Verification and Analysis Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, U.S.A.
(2) Center for Climatic Research, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, U.S.A.
(3) Department of Geography, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, U.S.A.
(4) Department of Geography, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada.

ITEM 33:
"A panel of 277 children, aged 3-7 years, was used to study the association between air pollution (O3, SO2, NO2, and total suspended particles), meteorological factors (global radiation, maximum daytime temperature, daily averages of vapor pressure and air humidity) and respiratory symptoms. For 759 days the symptoms were recorded in a diary and modeling was based on a modification of the method proposed by Korn and Whittemore (Biometrics 35: 795-798, 1979) . . . Using the estimated parameters as input to a simulation study, we checked the quality of the model and demonstrate that the annual cycle of the prevalence of respiratory symptoms is associated to atmospheric covariates."
Longitudinal modeling of respiratory symptoms in children, Int J Biometeorol, Uwe Schlink1, Gisela J. Fritz2, Olf Herbarth1 and Matthias Richter1
Department of Human Exposure Research and Epidemiology, UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, PO Box 500135, 04301 Leipzig, Germany
Environmental Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Leipzig, Germany.
ITEM 34:
"A significant relationship was found between the incidence of cardiovascular and neurological diseases and the occurrence of hot stress, while the presence of cold and very cold days was closely related with increases of bronchial asthma in adults and children."
International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 42 Issue 2 (1998) pp 77-83
Biometeorological classification of daily weather types for the humid tropics, Int J Biometeorol, Luis B. Lecha Estela, Centro Provincial de Meteorologia, Ave. 52 No. 2318 entre 23 y 25, Cienfuegos, CP 55100, Cuba.

ITEM 35:
"Ross River virus (RRV) is the most important vector-borne disease in Australia. The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System has confirmed that its incidence is often greatest in the state of Queensland, where there is a clear seasonal pattern as well as interannual variability. Previous studies have examined relationships between large-scale climate fluctuations (such as El Niño Southern Oscillation) and vector-borne disease. No previous study has examined such relationships with the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO), another large-scale climate fluctuation. We employ time-series analysis techniques to investigate cycles inherent in monthly RRV incidence in Queensland, Australia, from January 1991 to December 1997 inclusive. The presence of a quasi-biennial cycle in the RRV time series that is out of phase with the climatic QBO is described. Quantitative analyses using correlograms and periodograms demonstrate that the quasi-biennial cycle in the RRV time series is statistically significant, at the 95% level, above the noise. Together with the seasonal cycle, the quasi-biennial cycle accounts for 77% of the variance in Queensland RRV cases. Regression analysis of QBO and summer rainfall in three climatic zones of Queensland indicates a significant association between QBO and rainfall in the subtropical southeastern part of the state. These results suggest an indirect influence of the QBO on RRV incidence in Queensland, via its influence on climate in this region. Our findings indicate that the QBO may be a useful predictor of RRV at several months lead, and might be used by public health authorities in the management and prevention of this disease."
The Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and Ross River virus incidence in Queensland, Australia, Int J Biometeorol, Sinead J. Done1, Neil J. Holbrook1, and Paul J. Beggs1
Department of Physical Geography, Division of Environmental and Life Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109, Australia.

ITEM 36:
"A better understanding of the relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the climatic anomalies it engenders, and malaria epidemics could help mitigate the world-wide increase in incidence of this mosquito-transmitted disease. The purpose of this paper is to assess the possibility of using ENSO forecasts for improving malaria control. This paper analyses the relationship between ENSO events and malaria epidemics in a number of South American countries (Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela). A statistically significant relationship was found between El Niño and malaria epidemics in Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela. We demonstrate that flooding engenders malaria epidemics in the dry coastal region of northern Peru, while droughts favor the development of epidemics in Colombia and Guyana, and epidemics lag a drought by 1 year in Venezuela. In Brazil, French Guiana, and Ecuador, where we did not detect an ENSO/malaria signal, non-climatic factors such as insecticide sprayings, variation in availability of anti-malaria drugs, and population migration are likely to play a stronger role in malaria epidemics than ENSO-generated climatic anomalies. In some South American countries, El Niño forecasts show strong potential for informing public health efforts to control malaria."
The El Niño Southern Oscillation and malaria epidemics in South America, Int J Biometeorol (2002) 46: 81-89, Alexandre S. Gagnon1, Karen E. Smoyer-Tomic2, and Andrew B. G. Bush2
Department of Geography, University of Toronto, 100 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G3, Canada, e-mail: alexandre.gagnon@utoronto.ca, Tel.: +1-416-979-8901, Fax: +1-416-979-3886
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, 1-26 Earth Sciences Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2E3, Canada.
E-mail: karen.tomic@ualberta.ca
ITEM 37:
"We carried out a statistical study of the influence of meteorological and day-of-the-week factors on the intrinsic emergency patients transported to hospitals by ambulance. Multiple piecewise linear regression analysis was performed on data from 6,081 emergency admissions for 1 year between April 1997 and March 1998 in Fukuoka, Japan. The response variable was the daily number of emergency patients admitted with three types of disease: cerebrovascular, respiratory and digestive diseases. The results showed that the number of emergency patients admitted daily with cerebrovascular disease was significantly associated with temperature on the day of admission and whether the day was Sunday. As it became colder than 12 °C, emergency admissions of patients with cerebrovascular disease increased drastically, reaching a plateau at 4 °C. On the 3rd and 7th days after the temperature fell below 10 °C, the daily admission of patients with respiratory disease significantly increased. We also observed a weak association between emergency admissions of patients suffering from digestive disease and rising barometric pressure on the day of admission."
Association of meteorological and day-of-the-week factors with emergency hospital admissions in Fukuoka, Japan, Int J Biometeorol (2002) 46: 38-41, Toshio Makie1, , Muneaki Harada1, Naoko Kinukawa1, Hiroyoshi Toyoshiba1, Takeharu Yamanaka1, Tsuyoshi Nakamura2, Masako Sakamoto3 and Yoshiaki Nose1
Department of Medical Information Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan
Biostatistics and Mathematics, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Nagasaki University, Japan
Deputy Mayor of Fukuoka.
ITEM 38:
"The aim of this paper is to study the relationships between hospital emergencies and weather conditions by analyzing summer and winter cases of patients requiring attention at the emergency room of a hospital in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Hospital data have been sorted into seven different diagnostic groups as follows: (1) respiratory, cardiovascular and chest-pain complaints; (2) digestive, genitourinary and abdominal complaints; (3) neurological and psychopathological disorders; (4) infections; (5) contusion and crushing, bone and muscle complaints; (6) skin and allergies and (7) miscellaneous complaints. In general, there is an increase of 16.7% in winter while, for group 2 and group 6, there are more patients in summer, 54% and 75% respectively. In summer, the total number of patients for group 6 shows a significant positive correlation with temperature and dew-point temperature, and a negative correlation with the sea-level pressure for the same day. In winter, the same relationship exists, however its correlation is not as strong. The lags observed between these three variables: maximum dew-point temperature, maximum temperature, minimum air pressure and the peaks in admissions are 1, 2 and 4 days respectively. In winter, increases in temperature and dew point and decreases in pressure are followed by a peak in admissions for group 2. In winter, there are significantly more cases in group 5 on warm, dry days and on warm, wet days in the summer."
Association between weather conditions and the number of patients at the emergency room in an Argentine hospital, Int J Biometeorol (2002) 46: 42-51, Matilde Rusticucci1, , M. Laura Bettolli1 and M. de los Angeles Harris2
Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y los Océanos, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria - Pab. II, (1428) Buenos Aires, Argentina
Clínica "La Sagrada Familia", Buenos Aires, Argentina.

ITEM 39:
"Meteorotropic associations of heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) were investigated in a clinically healthy 48-year-old man in Kiev. His electrocardiogram (ECG) was determined over 50 days by fitting him with an ambulatorily wearable device; various natural physical environmental variables were also monitored. The mean inter-beat interval, the standard deviation of these intervals, the spectral power in several frequency ranges, the power ratio of the approx. 10.5-s/approx. 3.6-s spectral components and other aspects of HRV were computed over consecutive 14.4-min intervals. Together with ordinary meteorological variables, geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) and fluctuations of atmospheric pressure (FAP) in the range 0.01-0.10 Hz (10-100 s) were measured. The assessable infradian spectra (with frequencies lower than 1 cycle/28 hours) of all HRV parameters showed two major components with periods of about 3.5 and 10 days. Two environmental variables, FAP and wind speed (with which FAP is closely related), revealed both of these rhythms and showed the greatest cross-spectral coherence (0.70-0.98) with corresponding oscillations of HRV. Less specific but statistically significant product-moment correlations with major HRV indices were also found; most of these were with FAP, but correlations with air temperature, humidity, wind speed and geomagnetic disturbances were also found.  Long-term ECG recording, essential in the detection of infradian rhythms, proved to be sensitive to physical environmental variables, notably meteorological ones. FAP, usually neglected since its role has not been considered in previous biometeorological studies, or some factor closely related to FAP is probably involved in synchronizing or influencing the approximately 3.5-day HR and HRV rhythms in humans."
Natural environmental associations in a 50-day human electrocardiogram, International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 45 Issue 2 (2001) pp 90-99,
A. Delyukov (1), Yu. Gorgo (1), G. Cornélissen (2), K. Otsuka (3), F. Halberg (2)
(1) Biological Faculty, Taras Shevchenko University, Kiev, Ukraine
(2) University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA Director, Halberg Chronobiology Center, 715 Mayo Building (Delivery Code 8609), 420 Delaware St. S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455,
e-mail: halbe001@tc.umn.edu, Tel.: +612 624 6976, Fax: +612 624 9989
(3) Tokyo Women"s Medical University, Daini Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

ITEM 40:
"This study set out to determine the possible influence of variations in atmospheric pressure on mortality in the Madrid Autonomous Region (MAR), taking into account the possible confounding effect of other atmospheric variables. The study was based on daily mortality data from the MAR Revenue and Excise Authority, meteorological data from Getafe Observatory and air pollution data from the Madrid Municipal Automatic Air Pollution Monitoring Grid. A time-series analysis was performed, using Box-Jenkins modeling and controlling for the respective confounding variables. Furthermore, the different variables studied (pressure, temperature, pollutants, etc.) were used to produce a multivariate model of the different causes of mortality. A significant association was found between anticyclonic trend and mortality with circulatory causes in the medium-long term and anticyclonic trend and mortality with respiratory causes in the long term."
Relationship between atmospheric pressure and mortality in the Madrid Autonomous Region: a time-series study, International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 45 Issue 1 (2001) pp 34-40, S. González, J. Díaz, M. S. Pajares, J. C. Alberdi, A. Otero, C. López,
University School of Public Health (Centro Universitario de Salud Pública de Madrid), C/ General Oráa, 39, E-28006 Madrid, Spain, e-mail: julio.diaz@uam.es Tel.: +34-1-5642499, Fax: +34-1-4116696.
ITEM 41:
"Slight atmospheric pressure oscillations (APO) in the extra-low-frequency range below 0.1 Hz, which frequently occur naturally, can influence human mental activity. This phenomenon has been observed in experiments with a group of 12 healthy volunteers exposed to experimentally created APO with amplitudes 30-50 Pa in the frequency band 0.011-0.17 Hz. Exposure of the subjects to APO for 15-30 min caused significant changes in attention and short-term memory functions, performance rate, and mental processing flexibility. The character of the response depended on the APO frequency and coherence. Periodic APO promoted purposeful mental activity, accompanied by an increase in breath-holding duration and a slower heart rate. On the other hand, quasi-chaotic APO, similar to the natural perturbations of atmospheric pressure, disrupted mental activity. These observations suggest that APO could be partly responsible for meteorosensitivity in humans."
The effects of extra-low-frequency atmospheric pressure oscillations on human mental activity,
International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 43 Issue 1 (1999) pp 31-37,
A. A. Delyukov, L. Didyk, Lomonosova 30/2, kv.25, Kiev-22, 252022, Ukraine.

ITEM 42:
"Despite the pervasiveness of the idea that arthritis is influenced by the weather, scientific evidence on the matter is sparse and non-conclusive. This study, conducted in the Australian inland city of Bendigo, sought to establish a possible relationship between the pain and rigidity of arthritis and the weather variables of temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed and precipitation. Pain and rigidity levels were scored by 25 participants with osteoarthritis and/or rheumatoid arthritis four times per day for 1 month from each season. Mean pain and rigidity scores for each time of each day were found to be correlated with the meteorological data. Correlations between mean symptoms and temperature and relative humidity were significant (P <0.001). Time of day was included in the analysis. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that meteorological variables and time of day accounted for 38% of the variance in mean pain and 20% of the variance in mean rigidity when data of all months were considered. A post-study telephone questionnaire indicated 92% of participants perceived their symptoms to be influenced by the weather, while 48% claimed to be able to predict the weather according to their symptoms. Hence, the results suggest (1) decreased temperature is associated with both increased pain and increased rigidity and (2) increased relative humidity is associated with increased pain and rigidity in arthritis sufferers."
The association between arthritis and the weather, International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 40 Issue 4 (1997) pp 192-199, Helen Aikman, Department of Nursing, La Trobe University, Bendigo, P.O. Box 199, Bendigo, 3552 Victoria, Australia.

Earth's Magnetic Field Affects Humans   

ITEM 43:      
Microscopic magnets have been found in the human brain that might help explain possible links between cancer and electromagnetic fields, scientists said Monday.
'They are little biological bar magnets' made of crystals of the iron mineral magnetite, said geobiologist Joseph Krischvink of the California Institute of Technology.  'This really is an exciting discovery.' . . . Homing pigeons, whales, salmon, honeybees and some shellfish and bacteria have microscopic magnets . . . "
- Associated Press, Omaha World-Herald.  Tiny Crystal Magnets Found in Human Brain.  May 12, 1992.

ITEM 44:
"Every organism including the human organism, demonstrates cycles of biological and mental-emotional activity closely linked to geomagnetic force-field patterns and more complex force-field interrelations, both planetary and solar-terrestrial in scope.  Human behavior is influenced through the direct current control system of the brain by the terrestrial magnetic field, solar and planetary conditions, and both high and low energy cosmic radiation."
- Dr. Robert O. Becker, Medical Research, Syracuse University.

ITEM 45:
"I found in my research that this permeability (of blood cells) is under the direct control of (Earth's) geomagnetic field.  Apparently the control is connected with changes occurring in the water molecules of the membranes."
- Dr. Alexander Dubrov, USSR Academy of Sciences.  Soviet Life.  Jan 1972.

ITEM 46:
"There is incontrovertible evidence that, excluding all known forces influencing living things, there is a cyclic information in the form of radiation penetrating all ordinary containers that impresses all living things corresponding to atmospheric and lunar periods."
- Frank A. Brown, NW University.  Journal of Florida Medical Association.  56:1365, May 1960.

ITEM 47:
"Rutger Wever (the Max Planck Institute in Munich) built two underground rooms to isolate people from all clues to the passage of time, but one room was also shielded from naturally occurring electromagnetic fields.  Those exposed to the earth's field kept to a rhythm close to 24 hours.  People kept from contact with the earth's field, on the other hand, became thoroughly desynchronized.  
Wever next introduced various electric and magnetic fields into his completely shielded room.  Only one had any effect on the amorphous (out-of-rhythm) cycles.  An infinitesimal electric field pulsing at 10 hertz dramatically restored normal patterns to most of the biological measurements.  Wever concluded that this frequency in the micropulsations of the earth's electromagnetic field was the prime timer of biocycles.  In light of this work, the fact that 10 hertz is also the dominant frequency of the EEG (electrical current of the brain) in all animals becomes another significant bit of evidence that every creature is hooked up to the earth electromagnetically through its DC system . . . In 1983, using magnetic measurements in selective-shielding experiments, Baker (R. Robin, University of Manchester bionavigation researcher) and his coworkers reported locating magnetic deposits close to the pineal and pituitary glands in the sinuses of the human ethmoid bone, the spongy bone in the center of the head behind the nose and between the eyes.  I suspect that this organ transmits the biocycle timing cues from the earth field's micropulsations to the pineal gland."
- The Body Electric, Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life.  Robert O. Becker, 1985, pp 249, 255.

ITEM 48:
"Possibly the most ambitious pertinent investigation is that of Dull and Dull (Wright, S., Anat. Rec., 44, 287 (1929)).  In an analysis of approximately 40,000 cases over a period of 60 months they demonstrated graphically a clearly observable relationship between the 67 magnetic storms occurring during this time, and the incidence of nervous and mental diseases and suicides.
(In our own study) daily admissions to seven central New York State psychiatric hospitals and to the Psychiatric Service of a Veterans Administration General Medical and Surgical Hospital during July 1, 1957-October 31, 1961, were obtained.  Transfers were excluded . . . In general, the tentative conclusion of the pilot study can be reaffirmed:  a significant relationship has been shown between psychiatric disturbance as reflected in hospital admissions and natural magnetic field intensity."
Howard Friedman, Robert O. Becker.  Geomagnetic Parameters and Psychiatric Hospital Admissions.  Nature.  November 16, 1963.

ITEM 49:
"After analyzing six years' worth of data, two geophysicists (S.R.C. Malin, B.J. Srivastava, Nature) have concluded that there is a significant relationship between heart attacks and changes in the earth's magnetism."
New York Times.  April 24, 1979.  Heart Attacks Tied To Magnetic Change.

ITEM 50:
"Timing of the patients' complaints showed that most of their sufferings could be related to high air electricity, rather than to excessive heat or humidity."
Sulman, Felix Gad.  The Effect of Air Ionization, Electric Fields, Atmospherics and Other Electric Phenomena On Man and Animal.  p 143. 1980 by Charles C. Thomas.

ITEM 51:
In a fascinating study on geomagnetic storms and depression, British researchers found that male hospital admissions with a diagnosis of depression rose 36.2% during periods of geomagnetic activity as compared with normal periods. The investigators hypothesized that this increase may have been caused by a phase advance in the circadian rhythm of melatonin production.
Kay RW. Geomagnetic storms: association with incidence of depression as measured by hospital admission. British Journal Psychiatry 1994 164(3): 403-9.

ITEM 52:
"My primary philosophical goal is to discern the commonalities that exist between the sciences and to integrate the fundamental concepts. I assume that the human brain, its microstructure and intricate activity are the source of all human knowledge. To that end I have emphasized geophysics because it is a central focus for the physical sciences and neuroscience (originally physiological psychology). One of the major consequences of this bilateral interest has been the pursuit and discovery of subtle interactions between the geophysical/meteorological environment and human behavior."
Dr. Michael Persinger, a professor at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario Canada since 1971.  
Website: http://www.laurentian.ca/neurosci/persinger.html.

ITEM 53:   
Prof. Kirschvink has originated several ideas aimed at increasing our understanding of how biological evolution has influenced, and has been influenced by, major events on the surface of the Earth.  A major contribution includes the idea that the magnetic field sensitivity in animals might be due to small chains of biogenic magnetite functioning as specialized sensory organelles; this work has provided a solid biophysical basis for understanding magnetic effects on animal behavior, and has actually led to the discovery of these new sensory organs in higher animals.
Dr. Joseph L. Kirschvink, Professor of Geobiology, Princeton University.
Website:  http://www.gps.caltech.edu/users/jkirschvink/.

ITEM 54:
"Alignment of serial epidemiological, physiological, including electrocardiographic data with variations in galactic cosmic rays, geomagnetic activity, and atmospheric pressure suggests the possibility of links among these physical environmental variations and health risks, such as myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes, among others. An increase in the incidence of myocardial infarction in association with magnetic storms, reported by several investigators from Russia, Israel, Italy and Mexico, accounts in Minnesota for a 5% (220 cases =year) increase in mortality during years of maximal solar activity by comparison with years of minimal solar activity. Magnetic storms are also found to decrease heart rate variability (HRV), indicating a possible mechanism since a reduced HRV is a prognostic factor for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction."
Non-Photic Solar Associations of Heart Rate Variability and Myocardial Infarction
Germaine Cornelissen a,Franz Halberg a,Tamara Breus b,Elena V.Syutkina c,
Roman Baevsky b,Andi Weydahl d,Yoshihiko Watanabe e,Kuniaki Otsuka e,
Jarmila Siegelova f,Bohumil Fiser f;g,Earl E.Bakken h
a Halberg Chronobiology Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455,USA
b Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia
c Institute of Pediatrics,Scienti c Center for Children 's Health, Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, Russia
d Finnmark College, Alta, Norway
e Tokyo Women 's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan
f St. Anna Hospital, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
g Ministry of Health, Prague, Czech Republic
h North Hawaii Community Hospital Inc., Kamuela, HI, USA.

ITEM 55:
"The synchronization of biological circadian and circannual rhythms is broadly viewed as a result of photic solar effects. Evidence for non-photic solar effects on biota is also slowly being recognized. The ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes from rabbits, the time structure of blood pressure and heart rate of neonates, and the heart rate variability of human adults on earth and in space were examined during magnetically disturbed and quiet days, as were morbidity statistics. Alterations in both the about-daily (circadian) and about-weekly (circaseptan) components are observed during disturbed vs. quite days. The about-weekly period of neonatal blood pressure correlates with that of the local geomagnetic disturbance index K."
The Biological Effects of Solar Activity.
Breus TK, Pimenov KY, Cornelissen G, Halberg E, Syutkina EV, Baevsky RM, Petrov VM, Orth-Gomer K, Akerstedt T, Otsuka K, Watanabe Y, Chibisov SM.
Biomed Pharmacother 2002;56 Suppl 2:273s-283s.  BiblioCrono - No. 13 - 30/03/2003, Novidades em Cronobiologia e Neurociências, Laboratorio de Cronobiologia - LabCrono, Departamento de Fisiologia - UFRN Natal, RN Brasil, Prof. John Fontenele Araujo.

ITEM 56:
"Six of the major influenza epidemics, at least as far back as 1917, were synchronized with the sunspot cycle. Furthermore, all but one of these epidemics involved an antigenic shift, wherein the flu virus developed a new coat of protein, which made it resistant to the immunities the population had built up over the years. There is no known mechanism by which solar activity can abet virus evolution, except penetrating radiation, which is inherently destructive.
Lowered human immunity may also be a consequence of solar activity, according to Solco W. Tromp, director of the Biometeorological Research Center in the Netherlands. Over 30 years, research using blood data from 730,000 male donors led Tromp to the conclusion that the blood sedimentation rate varies with the sunspot cycle. Since this rate parallels the amount of albumin and gamma globulin, resistance to infection may also follow the lead of the sun."
Freitas, Robert A., Jr.; "Sunspots and Disease," Omni, 6:40, May 1984.

ITEM 57:
"The periodicities in the solar wind and variations in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) which are associated with the solar rotation are very similar in length to the biological periodicities. We investigate the temporal relations of variations in solar activity and in biological systems to test associations between events in the IMF, in geomagnetic disturbance, in myocardial infarction and in physiology. By cross-spectral analysis, we also find relations at certain frequencies between changes in human physiology on the one hand, and (1) the vertical component of the induction vector of the IMF, Bz, and (2) a global index of geomagnetic disturbance, Kp, on the other hand. We wish to stimulate interest in these periodicities of both biological systems and geophysical endpoints among physicists and biologists alike, so that problems relevant to clinicians and other biologists, including evolutionists, are eventually solved by their cooperation with the geophysical community."
Temporal associations of life with solar and geophysical activity, Annales Geophysicae, Abstract Volume 13 Issue 11 (1995) pp 1211-1222.
T. K. Breus (1), G. Cornelissen (2), F. Halberg (2), A. E. Levitin (3)
(1) Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyznaya 84/32, 117810 Moscow, Russia
(2) Chronobiology Laboratories, University of Minnesota, 5-187 Lyon Laboratories, 420 Washington Ave. S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
(3) Institute of Earth Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation, Russian Academy of Sciences, IZMIRAN, 142092 Troitsk, Moscow Region, Russia.

ITEM 58:
"The influence of solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) on human homeostasis has long been investigated. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between monthly proton flux (>90 MeV) and other SA and GMA parameters and between proton flux and temporal (monthly) distribution of total and cardiovascular-related deaths. The data from 180 months (1974-1989) of distribution in the Beilinson Campus of the Rabin Medical Centre, Israel, and of 108 months (1983-1991) from the Kaunas Medical Academy, were analyzed and compared with SA, GMA and space proton flux (>90 MeV). It was concluded: (1) monthly levels of SA, GMA and radiowave propagation (Fof2) are significantly and adversely correlated with monthly space proton flux (>90 MeV); (2) medical-biological phenomena that increase during periods of low solar and/or geomagnetic activity may be stimulated by physical processes provoked by the concomitant increase in proton flux; (3) the monthly number of deaths related (positively or negatively) to SA are significantly and adversely related to the space proton flux (>90 MeV)."
Space proton flux and the temporal distribution of cardiovascular deaths, International Journal of Biometeorology, Abstract Volume 40 Issue 2 (1997) pp 113-116,
E. Stoupel (1), J. Abramson (1), S. Domarkiene (2), M. Shimshoni (3), J. Sulkes (1)
(1) Toor Heart Institute, Cardiology Division, Epidemiology Unit, Rabin Medical Centre, Beilinson Campus, Petah Tiqva, 49100 Israel
(2) Institute of Cardiology, Kaunas Medical Academy, Lithuania
(3) The Weizman Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

ITEM 59:   
"CONCLUSION:  This paper provides evidence of a non negligible GMS effect on stock market returns in the United States, even after controlling for the influence of other environmental factors and well-known market seasonals. The World and several international stock market indices also appear to be negatively affected by geomagnetic storms during their recovery phase. This effect is statistically and economically significant, and seems to generate some trading gains. For the US, the GMS effect is similar across indices, ranging from -0.84 to -2.51 percent of average annual returns.  We also document a more pronounced GMS effect in the pricing of smaller capitalization stocks. We rationalize this finding by noticing that institutional ownership is higher for large cap stocks, while small cap stocks are being held mostly by individuals.  Since investment decisions of individual investors are more likely to be affected by sentiments and mood than those of institutional investors, we expect the GMS effect to be more pronounced for small cap stocks.  Overall, results are consistent with some of the recent findings in the psychology literature, are robust to different measures to capture the GMS effect, and do not appear to be an artifact of heteroskedastic patterns in stock returns.  As a supporting argument, we used clinical studies showing that geomagnetic  storms have a profound effect on people’s moods; and in turn people’s moods have been found to be related to human behavior, judgments and decisions about risk. By using related medical and psychological arguments, our results complement recent findings of a significant SAD effect [Kamstra, Kramer, and Levi (2003)] and of a significant sunshine effect [Hirshleifer and Shumway (2003)] in stock market returns.  This paper represents an attempt of establishing a link between psychology and economics. Future research should further explore the relation between people’s mood and behavior in a financial setting, possibly controlling for cross-country differences."
Playing the Field: Geomagnetic Storms and the Stock Market, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta Working Paper No. 2003-5b., Cesare Robotti  & Anya Krivelyova, February 2003.
Full paper available here:  http://www.behaviouralfinance.net/geomagnetic_storms/KrRo03.pdf

ITEM 60:
"Our recent results suggest that 50 Hz magnetic fields (MF) enhance ultraviolet (UV)-induced tumorigenesis in mouse skin . . . Our findings suggest that SSR induces p53-independent apoptosis in mouse skin and that the apoptotic response may be inhibited by exposure to MF. The exposure schedule did not alter the MF effect."
p53Independent apoptosis in UV-irradiated mouse skin: possible inhibition by 50 Hz magnetic fields,
Timo Kumlin1, , Päivi Heikkinen1, Veli-Matti Kosma2, Leena Alhonen3, Juhani Jänne3 and Jukka Juutilainen1  
E-mail: timo.kumlin@uku.fi
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, University of Kuopio and Kuopio University Hospital, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
A.I. Virtanen Institute, University of Kuopio, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.

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